The Department was established in the 2012/2013 session. The Department presently consists of Twenty four (24) Staff; Academic Staff Members are Twelve (12) and Twelve (12) Support Staff. The Department has Thirty Four (34) students in 300 Level, Thirty One (31) in 200 Level and Thirty Nine (39) in 100Level with a Chemistry Laboratory for our students’ practical classes.
The Department of Chemistry is one of the basic Academic Unit in the Faculty of Science. It is mission-oriented not discipline biased and serves as the functional unit for integrating teaching and research to positively influence the environment and community for development. The programme of the Department is therefore designed to give students the required academic and practical background in Environmental, Analytical, Organic, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry.
Breakdown of students in the Department
- To broaden the academic base of students in the main branches of Chemistry.
- To produce students that can competently handle diverse Chemistry issues and concepts with in depth focus on specialized areas.
- Provide the students with opportunity for integrating theoretical chemistry with practicals in all the branches of Chemistry.
- Admission Requirements
To ensure the development of the human mind, to be creative, innovative and research oriented.
To be the most outstanding Department in the University in terms of the quality of research and training.
The philosophy of the Department is to produce practical oriented and innovative graduates that will be of benefit to the host community Kogi State which is known to be rich in mineral resources and the country at large.
Students intending to graduate in Chemistry must satisfy the general University and Faculty of Science entry requirements. In addition, students seeking admission to study Chemistry must normally satisfy the following conditions:
FOUR - YEAR FULL-TIME DEGREE PROGRAMME
(i) A candidate must obtain five credits in Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics, English Language and Biology in SSCE or NECO Examination in not more than two (2) sitting
(ii) UME subjects: English Language, Chemistry, Biology, Physics or Mathematics.
In addition to the requirements mentioned above, candidates seeking direct entry admission must possess the following requirements:
At least two Advance level passes in chemistry and physics, mathematics or biology.
COURSE DESCRIPTION - DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
CHM 111 INTRODUCTORY PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
( 3 credit) - 1st Semester
Measurement involving accuracy and precision. Significant figure. Error determination. Atomic theory. Cathode rays, mass spectrometer, Thompson, Mosley, Rutherford and Bohr, contribution to Atomic theory. Electronic structure – Aufbau principle, Hund’s Rule. Quantum numbers and Pauli exclusion principle. Electronic configuration. Simple formula, Molecular formula, Standard solution, redox reactions. Mass action. Equilibrium constant, pH of acids, bases and buffer solution. Solubility product, common ion effect. Enthalpy, entropy and free energy change, Hess’ law. Faraday laws of electrolysis. Galvanic cells, half-cell potential and reactions. Nernst equation. Cells and battery. Definition of order of reaction and molecularity. Rate of simple reaction, rate constant, activation energy and Arrhenius equation.
CHM 122 INTRODUCTORY INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
(3 Credit) - 2nd Semester
- Test for simple cations and anions e.g. Copper, sodium, potassium, sulphate, chloride nitrate, sulphide ions etc.
- Molecules and chemical bonding – ionic, covalent, dative or coordinate, metallic and complex bonding. Intermolecular forces – permanent – permanent dipole and London or dispersion forces and H-bonding. Concept of hydridization in simple molecules or ions.
- Periodic Table structure. Periodicity in Periodic Table of properties such as atomic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity. Oxidation states and oxidation numbers. Balancing of simple redox reactions.
- Hydrides and oxides of metals and non-metals, type of oxides, Hydroxides. Definition of acids and bases with examples. Methods of metal extraction – iron, steel and alloys.
- Introduction to the d-block and f-block elements and major differences between them and s-and p-blocks, the representative elements.
Introduction to nuclear chemistry – nomenclature (nuclide, isotope, isobar, isotone) nuclear particles and nuclear Chemistry equations. Nuclear fusion and fission.
CHM 132 INTRODUCTORY ORGANIC CHEMISTRY( 3 Credit) - 2nd Semester
Scope of organic chemistry. Isolation and purification. Qualitative test for organic compounds containing nitrogen, sulphur, and halogens. Quantitative analysis using Dumas, Kjeidahl and Carius methods. IUPAC Nomenclature and classification of organic compounds, Homologous series, hybridization of carbon atom to reflects single double and triple bonds. Electronic theory in organic chemistry. Empirical and molecular formula, Saturated hydrocarbons, Isomerism- structural, geometric optical etc. Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes and cycloalkanes, their basic chemistry and uses in petroleum; unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkenes, cycloalkenes, alkynes, simple electrophilic, nucleophilic (e.g. halogen and acids) reaction, Definition of carbohydrates, Lipids (Fats, Oils) Soap and detergent. Benzene and aromaticity.
CHM 101 EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY I
(1 credit) - 1st Semester
- General laboratory instructions
- Measurements & weighing
- Identification of cations and anions. Flame/wet tests
- Recrystalization and melting point determination
- Volumetric analysis
- Simple acid-base titrations
- Evaluation of components of a mixture
iii. Redox titration
- Use of primary standard in redox titration
- Gravimetric analysis
- Determination of empirical formula
- Estimation of iron in a compound
iii. Estimation of sulphate in an impure compound
CHM 102 EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY II
( 1 Credit) - 2nd Semester
- Analysis of organic compounds
- Physical examination
- Ignition test
iii. Solubility test
- Detection of component elements qualitatively and quantitatively – C, H, N, halogens, S
- Test for ionic nitrogen, sulphur and halogens (for NO3- , SO42- , Cl- , Br- , I- ,)
- Identification of functional groups to reflect unknown that requires the following tests to identify the unknown;
- Test for primary amines
iii. Test for carboxylic acid
- Test for phenols
- Test for ketones and aldehydes
- Test for esters
vii. Iodoform test
- Identification of ionic components of organic compounds
- Preparation of aspirin (acctylsalicylic acid)
- Preparation of soap
CHM 211 BASIC PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
( 3 credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 111
Kinetic theory of gases. Thermodynamic – first law of thermodynamic. Introduction to second law of thermodynamic. Bond energies. Hess’ law and Born – Haber cycles. Chemical equilibrium – Dynamic equilibrium Keq, Kc and Kp and Le Chatelier’s principle. Ionic equilibrium – Kw, pH, pOH, buffer solution, indicator’s theory. Solubility product. Kinetic – first order, second order reactions, mechanisms of reaction. Rate equation and rate law. Electrochemistry – single electrode potential, cell thermodynamics and calculations, conductivity and molar conductivity.
CHM 221 BASIC INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
( 3 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 122
Hydrogen: structure of ice and water. The hydrogen ion, protonic acid, oxo acids, hydrides.
Group 1A; Electronic structure and general properties. Anomalous behaviours of lithium, alkali metals in liquid ammonia, binary and complex compounds of alkali metals.
Group IIA; Electronic structure and general properties, properties of beryllium compounds with other elements in this group. Binary and complex compounds of group IIA elements.
The Noble gases; occurrence, isolation, application, group trend, compounds of inert gases and their structures. Concept of hard and soft acids and bases. Chemistry in aqueous and non-aqueous media.
Complexes – nomenclature and isomerism. Redox reactions in inorganic chemistry, disproportionation reactions and examples.
CHM 232 BASIC ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
(3 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 132
Factors affecting structure and properties of organic compounds; atomic orbitals, bonding. Factors affecting availability of electrons; Inductive, mesomeric and steric effects. Preparation, properties uses and reaction mechanisms of Alcohol, Ethers, Epoxides, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic acids and their derivatives.Methane, energy of activation and free radical substitution reaction in alkanes. Alkylhalides; preparations, properties, nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions, elimination reactions. Aromaticity and electrophillic reactions.
CHM 222 STRUCTURE AND BONDING
(2 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 122
Shapes of orbitals, energy and degeneracy (s,p,d,f). Simple valence bond theory (electron-pair repulsion model, VSEPR) and molecular orbital theory – homonuclear and heteronuclear molecules as examples to include discussion of bond angle, bond length and bond order. Atomic spectra – Rydberg constant, Balmer, Lyman etc series and calculation of energy and Bohr radius. Structure of ionic crystals of types AB, AB2, AB3 and A2. Crystal lattice, crystal defect and crystal growth. Introduction to X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction methods. Isomorphism and polymorphism. Polarization of ions (Fajan’s Rule) and effects on bond types.
CHM 241 INTRODUCTORY ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
(2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 111 and/or CHM 122
Theory of error and statistical treatment of data. Classical methods of analysis. Expression of concentrations – mole, normality, molarity, molality and ppm. Sampling techniques and sample collection. Pretreatment of sample. Application of organic precipitating agents – oxime, 8-hydroxy quinoline, drug and sodium tetraphenylborate. Volumetric analysis – Volhard, Mohr and Fajan precipitation titration.
CHM 201 EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICAL/INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
( 1 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 101
Areas to be covered are basic techniques in physical and inorganic chemistry.
- Estimation of errors, processing of experimental data to yield best curve or linear fits and error limit.
- Quantative inorganic analysis by volumetric and gravimetric methods to include (a) pH measurement and buffer solution preparation (b) oxidation – reduction titration (c) Mixed – based titration requiring the use of more than one indicators.
- Thermal analysis involving measurement of heat of reaction, heat of solution and heat of mixing.
- Measurement of reaction rate and activation energy
- Construction of simple cells and measurement of e.m.f.
- Simple inorganic synthesis
CHM 202 EXPERIMENTAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
(1 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 102
Topic include chromatographic separation, purification and identification of organic compounds by solvent extraction, distillation, crystallization followed by determination of physical constant. Simple organic synthesis. Use of UV spectrophotometer for quantification of organic compounds.
CHM 234 INTRODUCTION TO PETROLEUM CHEMISTRY
(2 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 132
Petroleum in contemporary energy scene. Nature, classification and composition of crude petroleum and natural gases. Petroleum technology (cracking, catalytic reforming, dewaxing etc), survey of refinery products and processes. Petrochemicals in industrial raw materials (coal, wood, water gas, fats, oil etc). Prospect for the petrochemical industry in Nigeria.
CHM 213 CORROSION
( 2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 111
Corrosion: principles and mechanism of corrosion, types, factors and kinetics of corrosion monitoring, prevention, cathodic anodic effects, control of corrosion in petroleum, chemical industries and water works departments. Stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. Electroplating principles to prevent corrosion, dendritic electroplating effect, throwing power of solution, Alloy electroplating. Evans and Pourbaix diagram
CHM 321 MAIN GROUP INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
(3 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 221
Group IIIA: Chemistry of boron and its compounds.
Group IV: Group trend, diamond, graphite carbides and compounds with C-N and C-S bonds. Chemistry of silicon and its compounds. Such as halides, oxyhalides, silicones and silicate. Group VA, group trend, anomalous behaviour of nitrogen. Compounds of nitrogen and phosphrous including hydrazine, hydrazoic acid and hydroxyl amine.
Group VI A – Oxygen, sulphur and other members of the group.
Group VII A: Interhalogen Compounds, oxohalides, oxoacid of halogens and their salts. Polyhalides. Pseudohalides, chalconides.
Introduction to transition elements.
Separation of metals; solvent extraction, ion exchange techniques.
CHM 311 CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS
( 3 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 211
Definition – state and state function, exact and inexact thermodynamic functions. Zero, first, second and third law of thermodynamics. Pdv and mechanical work. Thermodynamic equality. Behaviour of ideal and non-ideal gases, Helmholt and Gibb’s free energy. Ideal mixing of gases and solutions, properties of non-ideal solution, fugacity and fugacity coefficient. Colligative properties of solutions. Some thermodynarmic equations – Clapeyron, Clausius – Clapeyron, Gibb-Helmholtz equations. Phase rule and phase diagram. Partial molar quantity. Gibb-Duhem relation.
CHM 331 STEREOCHEMISTRY AND ORGANIC CHEMISTRY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
(2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 232
Introductory stereochemistry, optical activity, conformational isomers , chirality etc. E-Z system of naming geometrical isomers. Conformational analysis of open chain and ring systems. α β – Unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Rearrangement reactions. Carbanion I: Acidity of α hydrogen, Claisen and crossed Claisen condensation, tautomerism and Reformatsky reactions, Carbanion II: Malonic ester and Aceto – acetic ester synthesis, Decarboxylation of α-keto acids, chemistry of Amines. Organic diols, hydroxy-acids, , and amino acids.
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic effects.
CHM 333 APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY
( 2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 232
Principles and application of UV, IR, NMR and Mass Spectroscopy to the determination and elucidation of structures of organic inorganic and organometallic compounds. Complimenting spectroscopic methods with chemical methods for structural elucidation.
CHM 313 Quantum Chemistry
( 2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 211
Evidences of quantization of EMR and electronic energy level. Pauli Exclusion principle, Schrodinger wave equation. Quantum mechanic postulate. Particles in one - dimensional and three - dimensional well or box. Linear combination of atomic orbital. Application of Schrodinger wave equation to hydrogen and helium atom. Approximation and variation methods, spin and total angular momentum. Russel-Saunder coupling. Term symbols and specrascopic forbiden transitions.
CHM 341 INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS
(3 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 241
Solvent extraction – partition co-efficient pH effect and extraction with metal chelator. Type of chromatography – TLC, Paper and column chromagraphy. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry – Beer – Lamber law and deviation from Beer - Lambert law. Use of UV radiation in quantitative work. Method of determining TDS, TSS and TS. Total oxygen demand (TOD) and Total dissolved oxygen (TDO). TBOD. Function of hollow cathodic lamp, cells, flame and furnaces. Interference in atomic spectroscopy. pH titrations and determination of equilibrium constant.
CHM 301 EXPERIMENTAL INORGANIC/PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
( 1 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 201
Topics to cover are experiments in colligative properties, thermodynamics, kinetics, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, chromatography, IR and electronic spectral analysis. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic compounds. Feasible experiments will be picked from above at any particular session and reporting of each experiment will follow the procedure of mini-project reporting – abstract, introduction, methodology, data presentation, result and discussion and conclusion. Instructors will be required to invite individual students for oral interview to defend their reports in about 5 minutes or more.
CHM 303 EXPERIMENTAL ORGANIC/ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
( 1 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 202
Multi-stage organic compound synthesis, separation and purification of organic compounds.
Identification of organic compound by combined (chemical & spectroscopic) techniques, complexiometic methods of metal estimation, spectrophotometric determination as a method of separating matrices (e.g. Cr2O72- and MnO4- mixture). Use of pH meter to determine equilibrium constants (e.g. K1, K2, K3 of H3PO4). Use of selective –ion electrodes for sensitivity/ selectivity principles.
Mini-project reporting and oral defence of reports are required.
CHM 302 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT
( 6 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite
A total of 6 months industrial attachments. This course is compulsory for all B.Sc. Chemistry Students. It is designed to train students in the area of industrial application of chemistry.
The candidate shall undertake industrial attachment in 300 Level, 2nd Semester.
The assessment of industrial attachment shall be as follows:
- Presentation of log book - 10 %
- Written report by the candidate - 30%
- Presentation and defence of report in a seminar - 40%
- Staff assessment of students at the industrial sites - 20%
TOTAL - 100%
CHM 335 POLYMER CHEMISTRY
( 2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 232
Polymers and nomenclature Addition and condensation. Polymerization, natural and synthetic polymers, , structures and properties of polymers, fiber forming polymers. Stereo-specific polymerization, co-polymerization. Thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers: - preparation, properties and uses. Elastomers and coatings and adhesives polymer solutions:. Degradation of polymers.
CHM 337 COLOUR CHEMISTRY
( 2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 232
Properties of dyes and pigments. Singeing, desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerization and optical brightening. Colour and constitution, Theory of dyeing. Classification of dyes. Dyeing:- preparation, structure and application of the major dye stuffs. Vat, Reactive, Azo and disperse dyes. After treatment. Quality Control: Colour fastness to washing, light, rubbing, perspiration head and sublimation.Surfactants. Iindustrial uses of pigments such as paints, plastics, printing inks e.t.c.
CHM 317 PHOTOCHEMISTRY
( 2 Credit) - 1st Semester Prerequisite CHM 211
Photochemical equivalence, light absorption by atoms and molecules, photochemical kinetics and experimental studies, photosynthesized reactions, flash photolysis, Laser, photochemical equilibrium,fluorescence, phosphorescence, chemiluminescence and photolysis with different examples, deactivation routes. Quenching. Photochemical reactions and photochemical yields. Photosynthesis, vision and photography.
CHM 319 SURFACE & COLLOIDAL CHEMISTRY
(2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 211
Surface Chemistry- Surface and interfacial tension. Solid-gas and liquid-solid interface Surface thermodynamics, spreading and wetting and application to agriculture and animal husbandry. Detergents and soaps. Adsorption and adsorption isotherms. Micellar systems and their applications. Heterogenous catalysis.
Colloids- colloidal state, classification, structure, preparation and purification. Lyophilic, lyophobic and hydrophobic and hydrophilic systems. Light scattering for particle size measurement. Donnan equilbrium
CHM 343 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
(2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 241
Concepts of elementary cycles. Sources, types and effects of environmental pollution.Humic substances and heavy metals in surface water. Water pollution and waste water treatment, composition of domestic water.Waste management, recycling, and uses of waste products. Common environmental pollutants. Global warming and Ozone depletion . Modern Agricultural practice and media quality. Fate processes of agro-chemical and industrial effluents in environmental media.
CHM 315 CHEMICAL KINETICS
( 3 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 211
Review of reaction rate. Rate equation, order of reaction and their determinations. Pseudo-order reaction. Experimental methods for studying slow and fast reactions. Theories of reaction rates – unimolecular, bimolecular, complex reactions and heterogenous catalysis. Chain reaction mechanisms. Collision theory and transition state theory. Steady state approximation.
CHM 441 ANALYTICAL PROCESSES
(3 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 341
Separation methods – Absorption and partition chromatography, HPLC, ion-exchange, solvent extraction, gel filtration, electrophoresis and dialysis. Radiometry. Proton and carbon – 13 NMR. Data treatment including statistical rejection of some experimental data. Recovery methods. Use of internal and external standards in analysis. Sources of interference and methods of correction in UV, IR, NMR, ESR and emission and absorption spectra. Redox titration and indicator. Complexiometric titration. Potentiometric and non-potentiometric analyses – Karl Fischer method as example of amperometric titration. Theory and applications of ion-selective electrodes, voltametric and polarographic methods of analysis.
CHM 422 CO-ORDINATION CHEMISTRY
(2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 321
Definition and nomenclature Application of Co-ordination compounds. Isomerism in complexes. Stereochemistry of complex molecules. Physical methods of structural investigation. Magnetic properties. The spectrochemical series. Ligand cis-trans directing John-Teller distortions. Stabilization of unusual oxidation states by complex formation. Thermodynamic stability of complex compounds, the stability constant, the chelate effect. Preparation and reactions of complexes.
CHM 432 PHYSICAL ORGANIC & REACTION MECHANISMS
( 2 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 331
Aromaticity and Huckel (4n + 2) rule.Method of the study of organic reaction mechanism; non-kinetic methods; kinetic methods. Nucleophillic substitution reactions, elimination and addition reactions, re-arrangement reactions, preparation and reaction of stereoisomers; stereoselectivity; neibouring group effects. Hammet equation. Reactive intermediates in organic chemistry. Factors affecting reactivity of organic compounds. Hyperconjugation effect.
CHM 431 HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY
( 3 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 331
Chemistry of three-membered rings with one hetero atom (epoxides, aziridine, episulfides) four-membered ring with one heteroatom (oxethanes, β – lactam); aromatic five-membered heterocyclic compounds (furans, pyroles and thiophenes). The synthetic and mechanistic aspects of fused heterocyclic system particularly quinolines, isoquinolines, Benzothiophenes, indoles, benzopyrilium salts, coumarines and chromones. Application of heterocyclic systems in drug synthesis.
CHM 435 NATURAL PRODUCT CHEMISTRY
(2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 331
Chemistry of terpenoids, carotenoids, steroids, lipids and alkaloids. Antibiotics, Flavonoids, Prostaglandins and chlorophylls. Other natural product of pharmaceutical importance. General method of isolation, separation, purification and structural determination of natural products. Classifications and discussions of the chemistry of important member and their Biogenesis
CHM 421 ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY
( 3 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 321
Definition. Classification of organometallic compounds.Preparation, reactions, structure and bonding of organometallic compounds of alkali, alkaline and transition metals including the abnormal behaviour of organometallic compounds. Organosulphur, organotin and organophosphorus compounds. Electron-transfer and charge-transfer processes in the cleavage of alkyl metals. Generation and detection of free radical from organometallic compounds. The organic chemistry of ferocenes and related compounds. Classification of ligands, the 18-electron rule bonding in transition metals organometallic compounds.
Metal-metal bonds and transition metal clusters. Organometallic catalysis. Application of organometallic compounds to organic synthesis.
CHM 412 THEORY OF MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY
(3 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 311
Electromagnetic spectrum and interaction with matter. Microwave spectroscopy, Infra-red spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Ultra-violet/visible spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Introduction to electron spin resonance, esr, Mossbauer effect, nuclear quadruple resonance and other modern techniques. Photo electron and x-ray photo electron spectroscopy.
CHM 426 INORGANIC REACTION MECHANISMS
( 2 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 321
Types of inorganic reactions. Rate laws and interpretation of rate laws. Complex definition, properties and structure, inert and labile complex, substitution reaction of octahedral complexes and their kinetics, substitution reaction of square planer complexes, outer sphere and inner sphere mechnism. Complimentary reactions, Introduction to bio-inorganic system.
CHM 442 INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL PROCESSES
( 3 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 341
Importance of chemical industries, conversion efficiency and yield. Raw materials, application and economic prospect of products of the chemical and allied industries. Electroplating, food canning and preservation vegetable oils, vitamins, additive, favouring and toxicity. Chemical processing of minerals, metallurgical processes. Manufacture of some heavy inorganic chemicals, cement, binding material, inorganic fertilizer, ceramic and glass. Synthesis of polymers, adhesives, dyes, explosives, insecticides, herbicides and pharmaceuticals. Back-mixing, residence time, distribution pattern
: Classification of industrial material, Body Centered Cubic (BCC), Face Centered Cubic (FCC) and hexagonal Closed Pack (HCP) structure. Atomic packing factor (APF). Identification of industrial materials, material defects and dislocation. Alloys-. A survey of Nigeria’s industry and raw material requirement.
CHM 400 PROJECT
(6 Credit) - 1st & 2nd Semester Prerequisite CHM 301 & CHM 303
Supervised projects involve research in the laboratories. Students are expected to spend at least 270 hours. The write-up is to be typed and bound as dissertation/thesis, and presented orally in a seminar to all staff and students of Chemistry and other related disciplines. The final grade will be determined as follows:
Internal examiners’ Assessment - 40%
Supervisor - 30%
Oral presentation - 30%
CHM 401 SEMINAR
(1 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite
- Use of chemical literature such as text books, chemical abstracts, journals etc.
- A topic involving a literature search.
Assessment; Write-up - 30%
Seminar presentation - 30%
Questions - 40%
CHM 423 NON-AQUEOUS SOLVENTS
(2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 321
Classification and general characteristics of non-aqueous solvents, solute-solvent interactions, protonic solvent, oxyhalides solvents, liquid halides solvents, dinitrogen tetraoxide, sulphur dioxide and flourosulphuric acid solvents, cyclic carbonates, sulphuric acid. Application of solvents.
CHM 413 ELECTROCHEMISTRY
(2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 311
Definition and scope. Electrolytic conduction, transport number and ionic mobility. Difussion Fick’s law. Activity of ions in solution, ohmic polarization, electrical double layer over-potential and over-voltage, polarized and non-polarized interfaces. Nernst equation. Limiting and exchange current densities, Tafel equation. Voltametry and polarography. Fuel cells. Corrossion as electrochemical process and cathodic protection.
CHM 436 ALICYCLIC CHEMISTRY
(2 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 331
Alicyclic compounds in nature; conformation of alicyclic rings; e.g. terpenes methods for the preparation of alicyclic compounds; reactions of alicyclic compounds; bicyclic compounds – classification; non-benzenoid aromatic compounds (e.g. azulenes); their synthesis, properties and reactions.
CHM 414 Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry
(2 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 311 and/or CHM 321
Revision of proton-neutron nucleus, neutron excess, shell model and nuclear spin. Alpha, megatron, positron, electron capture, gamma and internal conversion decay modes. Properties of particles produced – annihilation, range, shielding etc. Health effects, permissible dose level risk estimates. Kinetics of decay, half life and decay curves. Detectors – ionization chamber,Geiger Muller, solid and scintillation counters. Quenching and channels ratio correction. Natural radioactivity. Induced radioactivity – mass energy balance including recoil. Nuclear stability and binding energy. Fission and fusion. Reactor types classified by fuel, moderator coolant. Introduction to activation analysis. The use of isotopes in reaction mechanism and everyday life.
CHM 416 SYMMETRY AND GROUP THEORY
( 2 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 313
Review of determinants, matrix and linear algebra symmetry operations and symentry elements. Definition of groups, molecular symmetry groups. Group representation, character tables, irreducible representations, group presentations and quantum mechanics. Point groups - Cn, Dn, Cv and full rotation group. General symmetry applications, to dipole moments, optical activity. Woodward-Hoffman rules. Symmetry crystal lattice, block orbitals for infinite systems.
CHM 433 ORGANIC REACTIONS AND SYNTHESIS
(3 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 331
Synthesis of aromatic compounds, Introduction of terms like disconnection, synthons, target molecule, analysis or retrosynthetic analysis, Reagent, Synthetic equivalent, functional group interconversion, etc. Order of events in Electrophilic Aromatic substitution. One-group C-X disconnection; in carbonyl derivatives. RCOX, alcohols, Ethers, Alkyl halides and sulphides. Two-Group C-X disconnections, 1,1-Difunctionalised compounds, 1,2-difunctionalised compounds, 1,3-difunctionalised compounds. One group C-C disconnection: Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketone – Michael addition, Carboxylic acids; 1,2-C-C disconnections. Carbonyl compounds. Stereo-selectivity, chemo-selectivity. Regio-selectivity. Wittig reaction; stereo-selectivity in Wittig reaction. Use of acetylene two – group disconnection. Diel-Alder reactions. Difunctionalised compounds and Para-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Two-group disconnection 1,5 difunctionalized compounds, Robinson Annulations. Emphasis is placed on mechanisms where possible.
CHM 415 STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS
(2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 311
Statistical mechanic as related to statistical thermodynamic Maxwell – Boltzman statistic. Canonical ensemble. Partition function for non-interacting system – translation, rotation, vibration in an ideal gas. Entropy, heat capacity and equilibrium constant. The Enstein solid. Statistical theory of liquids. Brief discussion of molecular dynamic and Monte-Carlo method. Bose & Fermi and Dirac Statitistics
CHM 437 PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PERICYCLIC REACTIONS
( 2 Credit) - 1st Semester Pre-requisite CHM 331
Interaction of radiation with matter, Electronic excitation, selection rules, reactivation rules, photosensitization, Quenching, photofragmentation; oxidation, reduction, rearrangement; pericyclic reactions and orbital symmetry. Orbital symmetry correlation in organic reactions.
CHM 434 MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY
(3 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite CHM 331
Macromolecle-Nomenclature, classification and structure of sugars. Monosaccharide, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. General reactions, preparation and reaction mechanism configurations. Epimerization. Starch, cellulose and products of degradation. Synthetic significance of sugars in the biosynthesis of nucleotides.
Nucleic acids- structure and functions of DNA, RNA. Amino acids and proteins- structure, synthesis and reactivity. Peptide linkage.
CHM 424 TRANSITION AND INNER TRANSITION METAL CHEMISTRY
(2 Credit) - 2nd Semester Pre-requisite 321
Transition metals – electronic configuration, oxidation state and oxidation state diagrams. Complex .formation. Hard and soft acid and base concept. Ligand field stablilization energy as applied to octahedral and tetrahedral complexes. ACFT and MO theory. Magnetochemistry. The f-block chemistry in terms of electronic configuration, oxidation state, magnetic property, complex formation and separation processes. The lanthanide shift reagent and their uses in interpreting complex spectra.
List of Academic staff in Department of Chemistry
B.Sc.(Hons.) Chemistry (BUK), MSc.(Chemistry) (UniLorin)
M.Sc (Environmental Chemistry)
BSc., MSc. Inorganic Chemistry
Ph.D Inorganic Chemistry
Department of Chemistry
Federal University Lokoja
Lokoja, Kogi State
Contact Number: +234-08036294440, 08074776777